Friday, May 03, 2013

Whistleblowers and the INTJ Personality

Sitting in his cubicle at WorldCom Inc. headquarters one afternoon in May, Gene Morse stared at an accounting entry for $500 million in computer expenses. He couldn't find any invoices or documentation to back up the stunning number.

"Oh my God," he muttered to himself. The auditor immediately took his discovery to his boss, Cynthia Cooper, the company's vice president of internal audit. "Keep going," Mr. Morse says she told him.

A series of obscure tips last spring had led Ms. Cooper and Mr. Morse to suspect that their employer was cooking its books. Armed with accounting skills and determination, Ms. Cooper and her team set off on their own to figure out whether their hunch was correct. Often working late at night to avoid detection by their bosses, they combed through hundreds of thousands of accounting entries, crashing the company's computers in the process.

By June 23, they had unearthed $3.8 billion in misallocated expenses and phony accounting entries. It all added up to an accounting fraud, acknowledged by the company, that turned out to be the largest in corporate history. Their discoveries sent WorldCom into bankruptcy, left thousands of their colleagues without jobs and roiled the stock market.

At a time when dishonesty at the top of U.S. companies is dominating public attention, Ms. Cooper and her team are a case of middle managers who took their commitment to financial reporting to extraordinary lengths. As she pursued the trail of fraud, Ms. Cooper time and again was obstructed by fellow employees, some of whom disapproved of WorldCom's accounting methods but were unwilling to contradict their bosses or thwart the company's goals.

WorldCom is under investigation by the Justice Department and the Securities and Exchange Commission. Scott Sullivan, WorldCom's former chief financial officer and Ms. Cooper's boss, has been indicted. He has denied any wrongdoing. Four other officers have pleaded guilty and are cooperating with prosecutors. Federal investigators are still probing whether Bernard J. Ebbers, the company's former chief executive, knew about the accounting improprieties. Since the initial discoveries, WorldCom's accounting misdeeds have grown to $7 billion.

Behind the tale of accounting chicanery lies the untold detective story of three young internal auditors, who temperamentally didn't fit into WorldCom's well-known cowboy culture. Ms. Cooper, 38 years old, headed a department of 24 auditors and support staffers, many of whom viewed her as quiet but strongwilled. She grew up in a modest neighborhood near WorldCom's headquarters and had spent nearly a decade working at the company, rising through its ranks. She declined to be interviewed for this story. Mr. Morse, 41, was known for his ability to use technology to ferret out information. The third member of the team was Glyn Smith, 34, a senior manager under Ms. Cooper. In his spare time he taught Sunday school, took photographs and bicycled. His mom had taught him and Ms. Cooper accounting at Clinton High School.

Frightened that they would be fired if their superiors found out what they were up to, the gumshoes worked in secret. Even so, their initial discrete inquiries were stonewalled. Arthur Andersen, WorldCom's outside auditor, refused to respond to some of Ms. Cooper's questions and told her that the firm had approved some of the accounting methods she questioned. At another critical juncture in the trio's investigation, Mr. Sullivan, then the company's CFO, asked Ms. Cooper to delay her investigation until the following quarter. She refused.

Ms. Cooper's first inkling that something big was amiss at WorldCom came in March 2002. John Stupka, the head of WorldCom's wireless business, paid her a visit. He was angry because he was about to lose $400 million he had specifically set aside in the third quarter of 2001, according to two people familiar with the meeting. His plan had been to use the money to make up for shortfalls if customers didn't pay their bills, a common occurrence in the wireless business. It was a well-accepted accounting device.

But Mr. Sullivan decided instead to take the $400 million away from Mr. Stupka's division and use it to boost WorldCom's income. Mr. Stupka was unhappy because without the money, his unit would likely have to report a large loss in the next quarter.

Mr. Stupka's group already had complained to two Arthur Andersen auditors, Melvin Dick and Kenny Avery. They had sided with Mr. Sullivan, according to federal investigators.

But Mr. Stupka and Ms. Cooper thought the decision smelled funny, although not obviously improper. Under accounting rules, if a company knows it is not going to collect on a debt, it has to set up a reserve to cover it in order to avoid reflecting on its books too high a value for that business. That was exactly what Mr. Stupka had done. Mr. Stupka declined to comment.

Ms. Cooper decided to raise the issue again with Andersen. But when she called the firm, Mr. Avery brushed her off and made it clear that he took orders only from Mr. Sullivan, according to the investigators. Mr. Avery and Mr. Dick declined to comment. Patrick Dorton, a spokesman for Andersen, said his firm thought that the $400 million wireless reserve was not necessary.

"That was like putting a red flag in front of a bull," says Mr. Morse. "She came back to me and said, 'Go dig.' "

Some internal auditors would have left it at that and moved on. After all, both the company's chief financial officer and its outside accountants had signed off on the decision. But that was not Ms. Cooper's style. One favorite pastime among the auditors who reported to her was applying the labels of the Myers-Briggs & Keirsey personality test to their fellow staffers. Ms. Cooper was categorized as an INTJ -- introspective, intuitive, a thinker and judgmental. "INTJs," according to the test criteria, are "natural leaders" and "strong-willed," representing less than 1% of the population.